International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation, Cochin University of Science and Technology, 3.12. 2018.

The electromagnetic spectrum is not only an important but invisible part of our life but also of various space and warfare applications due to satellites and wireless routers.  Traditionally microwaves was used in satellite communication but mm-wave satellite communication is gaining importance as mm-waves have considerably broader bandwidths, small and light weight components, reduced multipath effects, reduced vulnerability to jamming and better sea clutter operability. Electronic Warfare (EW), Information and cyber warfare all fall under Electromagnetic Spectrum warfare. EW involves the use of the electromagnetic spectrum or directed energy to control the spectrum, attack or impede the enemy via the spectrum through offense and defense operations. The winning side in future warfare does not only depend on simply using the electromagnetic spectrum, but in dominating the electromagnetic spectrum and more towards network centric operations demanding increased processing capabilities.  EW should support the operations of friendly forces in an electromagnetic environment (ESM),  and suppress the adversaries’ usage of electromagnetic environment (ECM), including detection, denial, deception, disruption, degradation and destruction of enemy’s usage and protection of electromagnetic spectrum. One should be able to sense, protect oneself in the electromagnetic spectrum, and attack to achieve effects like degrade, deny, and destroy.  EW systems should be properly networked to cover warfighters on land, at sea and in the air as lack of integration can lead to failure of the mission. Cognitive EW merges advances in artificial intelligence and machine learning technology with smart sensors. Due to this, EW system can be adapted in real time during the warfare scenario based on observation and performance.